India and Disarmament at 2.5 Minutes to Midnight

Anarchist Alexander Berkman in his War Dictionary defined Militarism as: “Christianity in action.” It holds more true today in Indian context where Militarism is Hindutva in action. Much more so in the case of Nuclear Weapons (NW) militarism.  Jan Sangh was calling for having NWs before China, let alone Pakistan had them. The NW fetish in India is a direct outgrowth of Hindu Militarism of Sangh and their predecessors – not of any genuine security concern.

Without dwelling into the important history of the development of Indian nuclear weapons programs and policies and the role of US in it, it would be better to concentrate on most recent events. India has one of the fasted growing nuclear arsenal in the world. It is not the signatory of Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) – along with Pakistan and Israel – all Nuclear Weapons States (NWS). Although NPT is rightly criticized for a lot of its shortcoming, one of which is the absence of implementation of Article VI, which obliges all states party to pursue negotiations “in good faith” on effective measures for nuclear disarmament

Under the shadow of the Bomb

Ex-commander of the US Strategic Air Command, General Lee Butler, concluded that we have so far survived the nuclear age “by some combination of skill, luck, and divine intervention, and I suspect the latter in greatest proportion.”  For more information on how close we are to a Nuclear War or (more likely) an accidental trigger see the following links:  Graham T. Allison, Nuclear Terrorism expert; Eric Schlosser, investigative journalist;  Ward Wilson of the Rethinking Nuclear Weapons project.

The Recent Doomsday Clock statement noted “Even as the Iran agreement was hammered out, tensions between the United States and Russia rose to levels reminiscent of the worst periods of the Cold War. Conflict in Ukraine and Syria continued, accompanied by dangerous bluster and brinkmanship, with Turkey, a NATO member, shooting down a Russian warplane involved in Syria, the director of a state-run Russian news agency making statements about turning the United States to radioactive ash, and NATO and Russia repositioning military assets and conducting significant exercises with them. Washington and Moscow continue to adhere to most existing nuclear arms control agreements, but the United States, Russia, and other nuclear weapons countries are engaged in programs to modernize their nuclear arsenals, suggesting that they plan to keep and maintain the readiness of their nuclear weapons for decades, at least—despite their pledges, codified in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, to pursue nuclear disarmament.

“The fast pace of technological change makes it incumbent on world leaders to pay attention to the control of emerging science that could become a major threat to humanity.” And situation has only worsen under the Trump administration.

In India’s context the change in rhetoric and signals from policy-makers suggest the people in control of NWs are a reckless bunch as stupid a the Trump administration, if not worse. Talks of moving away from No-First-Strike policy by previous Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar are well known and remarks by Shivshankar Menon, National Security Advisor for UPA 2, confirm that India at anytime can change this policy which could have no foreseeable good effects.  MIT professor Vipin Narang, said in a lecture last month that India could launch a “preemptive first strike if it fears a nuclear attack is imminent. –  a marked reversal of the No-First-Use policy” Also noticing that “relations between India and Pakistan are at lowest” since at least a decade.

In New York

On March 27th in New York City, UN negotiations for a “legally binding instrument to prohibit nuclear weapons” will begin.

From The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists:

“How did we reach this historic turning point? Ireland, together with Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, New Zealand, and South Africa, first put forward the idea of a nuclear-weapon ban treaty at an NPT meeting in 2014. Such a ban, they said, would operate alongside and in support of the NPT and constitute one of a number of effective measures needed to eliminate nuclear weapons. “A prohibition on nuclear weapons is a logical and moral imperative,” the Irish disarmament ambassador, Patricia O’Brien, has said. “It is also a legal imperative, stemming from Article VI of the NPT.”
In the UN General Assembly last December, it became clear that a great majority of NPT members supported the proposed treaty. They voted overwhelmingly in favor of the resolution establishing the mandate for negotiations. The new treaty, when adopted, will place nuclear weapons on the same legal footing as other weapons of mass destruction, which have long been prohibited under international law. Proponents hope that it will greatly strengthen the global norm against nuclear weapons and spur much-needed action toward their abolition.
The negotiations are a necessary response to the deep concern expressed by all NPT members in 2010 at the “catastrophic humanitarian consequences” that would result from any use of nuclear weapons. In the final document of that year’s NPT review conference, they affirmed the need “to make special efforts to establish the necessary framework to achieve and maintain a world without nuclear weapons.” After decades of paralysis in multilateral nuclear disarmament efforts, the ban negotiations are a major opportunity for NPT states to contribute toward full implementation of Article VI.
Of course, some NPT members vehemently oppose the initiative, recognizing that it will fundamentally challenge the perception that their reliance on nuclear weapons is legitimate. Last October, the United States “strongly encourage[d]” its NATO allies to vote against the start of negotiations. “In addition, if negotiations do commence, we ask allies and partners to refrain from joining them,” the US government said in a paper explaining how the ban would make it more difficult for NATO members to cooperate in preparations for nuclear war.
It is likely that several US allies will obediently comply with this request. Australia, for example, said on March 2 that it plans to boycott the talks, as it “would not be able to negotiate in good faith.” But others will form an independent view. For example, the Netherlands, which hosts US nuclear weapons on its soil, said on February 27 that it “has chosen to take part constructively, with an open mind and without being naïve.” This is the responsible course of action for any nation wishing to uphold the NPT and prevent its further disintegration.
The greatest threat to the NPT today comes not from the negotiation of a ban treaty—as some nations have disingenuously claimed—but rather from the continued failure of the nuclear weapon states, and many of their allies, to take seriously their disarmament obligations. The NPT is not a licence for certain nations to retain nuclear weapons forevermore, or for others to indefinitely claim the “protection” of an ally’s nuclear weapons.
Recent threats of a new nuclear arms race and ongoing programs to replace old nuclear warheads with ever-deadlier ones cause much damage to the NPT, as does the ill-considered boycott of the forthcoming UN negotiations. At a moment of great global uncertainty and instability, negotiating a ban on the very worst weapons of mass destruction is more crucial and urgent than ever. States should strive to achieve the most robust and effective treaty possible.”

As India is not a NPT member this has no direct bearing on India’s arsenal. But if something fruitful comes out of these negotiations that would change the global atmosphere of concern surrounding NWs significantly. These negotiations aside Indian Anarchists and other concern citizens should come together and eliminate this monster of nuclear weapons. This, a colossal task in itself which will be much more austere under this administration.

In India, Nuclear Disarmament is not only an issue of nation, international security and, above all, of human survival; but is also deeply tied in with the fight against the Right and the ruling class in general. It would be a grave mistake to see it as something separate from other Indian social justice issues. And anyone willing to employ themself in this task should be prepared for “Sedition”. Which Berkman in the Dictionary calls “The proof of Tyranny.”

Crime – the Privilege of the State

Whether the State is called monarchy or republic, crime will always be necessary to maintain and assure its triumph. This crime will no doubt change its direction and object, but its nature will remain the same. It will always be the forced and abiding violation of justice and of honesty – for the good of the State.  – Mikhail Bakunin

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In 1939, few days before initiating the invasion of Poland, Hitler gave a speech to his to military commanders where asked them “to kill without pity or mercy all men, women and children” and added “only this way can we obtain the living space we want.” He assured them that there will be no retribution and that they will enjoy complete impunity.  This month marks the seventy-seventh year of the invasion.

In 2010, the current National Security Adviser for the Modi administration, Ajit Doval gave a lecture in Hyderabad on Kashmir and described the Kashmir issue as ” the product of the ‘dysfunctional mindset’ of three parties: India, Pakistan and the Kashmiri separatists.” and strongly maintained that there is no “political” issue in Kashmir – a position which is shared by Dovish military and intelligence officials as well.

After presenting his distorted and fantastical analysis of Kashmir’s history and the ritualistic display of jingoism: “we are great fighters, we have a great religion …that teaches us self-sacrifice…”  he advised the then policy makers that: “Don’t overreact, don’t give in, don’t follow appeasement, it [2010 protests] will pass off. It looks big in the midst of it, they cannot sustain it beyond a point and even if they do there is a price that they have to pay.” And “In the game of power the ultimate justice lies with the one who is strong”.

The Doval doctrine has since been applied and the result has been 89 dead civilian, attack on hospitals and ambulances by armed forced, tens of thousands injured, hundreds permanently physically disabled and writers, activists arbitrarily arrested. The goal of this tactic is, as security officers tell us, to retake control over South Kashmir and its streets.

State violence = defense. A tautology.

The organs of state and its lapdogs – the media, tell us that the actions of Indian armed forces are of defensive nature, that they are keeping peace and the unruly protestors are disturbing the peace. The Germans invaded Poland to protect themselves from foreign aggression and to save Germans, just like every other acts of wholesale murder in human history been committed for some noble goal and to protect oneself from aggression of the enemy.

If one accepts this premise that the state has the right to put down revolts and protests, to gain control inside their national boundary by any means then, they are also accepting that Pakistan was justified in committing genocide within its national borders. But I do not believe there are many who will hold such a view. And if the people who attacked Uri Army headquarters and killed 18 individuals for political, strategic or economic advantages are terrorists then, the institution that has deliberately killed 89 people and injured hundreds, within last few months alone, for its ideological, economic and strategic advantages is also a terrorist institution.

Hypocrisy And The Indian Media

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It doesn’t behove Indian Media and intellectuals to criticize Pakistan Police crushing Pro-Indian protest in POK, when hundreds have been killed in the past decade by Indian Army during similar Pro-Pakistani protests in Indian occupied territories. Most of the times, these incidents are not even mentioned in Indian media, such as ibnlive, India Today and Zee News.

These outlets rarely bat an eye about the mass graves and thousands missing and other thousands of Kashmiris in Indian Prisons without trials, if in deed, ever! And they think they have any moral right to talk about Pakistan’s human rights violations, when at the same time they support the regime that has never let UN investigation team enter India to find the truth about much more severe allegations against it.

This at the moment, which Ahmed Quraishi, Executive Director, YFK described last week during a press conference in Geneva is as: “We could wake up any morning and find our selves engulfed in a full-fledged nuclear war in South Asia – between Pakistan and India”.

Just a few days ago, reportedly thousands of teachers were arrested in my home town, Bhopal, for demanding Equal Pay For Equal Work, a condition protected under UN’s declaration of Universal Human Rights, while instead of condemning this human rights violations most news channels either did not mention it, or mentioned it in passing or argued why the teachers do not “deserve” equal pay. If anyone doesn’t “deserve” any thing today, it is the media outlets, pundits and intellectuals to criticize Pakistan regime for their crimes when it supports the crimes committed by it’s own government with zeal.

On Budget 2015-16

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The general attitude towards this year’s budget has been quite similar to that of over the past few years: corporate enthusiasts are excited, middle classes are uncertain and puzzled and rest of the population is apathetic to varying degrees.

The underlying conclusion of this year’s budget is that of maintaining and extending the austerity measures, but to the magnitude that makes UPA look almost anti-capitalist. It proposes to abolish wealth tax and targets to reduce corporate tax from 30 to 25 percentage and also reduce direct tax by Rs 8,315 cr and increase the burden on “general public” through indirect tax hike of Rs. 23,383 cr.

I agree with Mr. Sitaram Yechury when he claims, commenting on the exceptions of budget’s gross tax revenues: “Expectations of ‘tax buoyancy’ by the financial minster is, hence, pure imagination”. But we are talking about corporate capitalism, Mr Yechury, “pure imagination” and fictitious capital is its live-blood.

There will be reduction in grants and loans to the states. Food subsidies will be sluggish. Health and family welfare will come down from Rs. 35,163cr (last year) to 29,653cr. Housing and urban poverty alleviation figures have dropped from Rs 6,008cr to Rs 5,634cr.

All this while the subsidies, “tax incentive” to the rich are more than the actual fiscal deficit. It should be quite clear that the deficit burden, for the most part, is due to subsidies to the rich, not the poor. In short, socialism for corporations and free market and its risks for the rest of the population.

It is also important to note that, “Taxing corporations and the rich would have consequences too, but they would generate far fewer social costs and fall mostly on those best able to cope with them.” (). Isn’t it quite obvious and why are all the measures that are being taken are exactly the opposite? And why can’t we do better than capitalism? Demand discussion, debate and democratic (in actual sense of the word) decisions – instead of being trapped by the invisible handcuff of capitalism?

Response To Remarks On Anarchism By Narendra Modi

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In January, during a poll address, India’s Prime Minister Mr Narendra Modi, in reference to Mr Arvind Kejriwal said, “Have you ever seen a political leader calling himself an anarchist? If so, join the Naxals. Naxalism cannot be brought to Delhi. Delhi can’t be surrendered to anarchy”. I will be examining and responding to this from a Libertarian-Socialist perspective.

First problem with this remark seems to be that it does not provide us with any background what so ever about Anarchism. What it is and what Anarchists believe, and as matters relating to anarchism are quite deliberately driven out of mainstream culture, it is easy to mystify and distort its meaning. Also as we will see that anarchism has many variants and this attack does not even provide us any clue as to which school of thought within anarchism Mr Kejriwal associates himself with. And as I tried to find out for myself what type of anarchist Mr Kejriwal might be, I soon realized he never made that clear (in interviews). I confess I have not yet read his book ‘Swaraj’, which should be the basic text for understanding his philosophy. But I’ll nonetheless try to examine his anarchism on the basis that it derives from pseudo-anarchist theory and even more so superficial practices of Mohandas Gandhi, who himself derived it from the works of Christian-Anarchist Leo Tolstoy, Thoreau and Chinese and other anarchist movements that were taking place at the time. And also Pacifism which is not exclusive to any particular anarchist philosophy but varies in practice from person to person and situation to situation.

Mr Kejriwal is a member of a political party and an electoral candidate (and now the Chief Minister of Delhi). Anarchists are exclusively against parliamentary government as a form of action for social change (the only exception to this that I can remember are four anarchists who joined the Marxist party [PCE] and the central government during Spanish revolution in 1937). It should be understood that there are no doctrines within anarchism, therefore, Mr Kejriwal can very well be an anarchist and be an electoral candidate, which evidently seems to be the case. But I don’t see him supporting Trade Unions or utilizing any other form of anarchist methods. I therefore doubt him being an anarchist, at least not an Anarcho-Syndicalist. And as for his stance on capitalism and neo-liberal policies, they are not very clear as well. As anarchists are very critical of and hostile towards it, his clear views would have been helpful. Yesterday, while addressing his supporters after his victory in Delhi elections he proposed that “Rich and Poor in Delhi will develop together”. He does not even seem to be conscious of the class conflict. He also proposes “women empowerment” by first empowering highly authoritarian and centralized Police forces and increasing surveillance on general population. An anarchist would have rather preferred educating women and men on feminist and sex studies and providing women with means by which they can defend themselves, instead of making them dependent on police force. And more centralization of power and police control is counterproductive to any democracy and for anarchist any cause as well. Hence, it is very improper to portray what Mr Kejriwal is doing as anything “anarchist”.

Second and maybe the most important point in this post – Naxalites are NOT Anarchists. Naxalites are Maoist-Communist guerrilla , which is a fragment of Maoist Communism (movement), which in itself is very different and contradictory to any Libertarian Communist belief like Council Communism, of that of thinkers and activists, like Anton Pannekoek and Rosa Luxemburg. Anarchists oppose all sort of statist, authoritarian forms of Communisms like Leninism, Stalinism, Maoism, even more severally than we oppose representative democracy, as the latter is comparatively freer and desirable than any of the totalitarian State-Capitalism that call themselves communisms. The only similarity one can draw from Anarchism and Naxalism is they both are anti-capitalist in nature and oppose the state, but the alternative which both favor and the means by which they chose to bring the change about are polar-opposites.

Where Naxalites employ the use of violence and terror on the state and on civilians to remove the free market with state control over economy and representative democracy with totalitarianism. Anarchist favor trade unionism, peasants and workers movement, creating alternative economies to replace state control with federations of freely associating communes and capitalism with gift economies, participatory economies, mutualist markets etc. The difference between Anarchism and Naxalism is much more stark than that between the state and naxalists as both favor violence when population goes against their will.

I think it will be appropriate to draw out some of the key points on which anarchist and all Marxist traditions diverge. Both traditions emerge out of Workers movements and Socialist movements of 18th century. And both were part of the First International (International Workingmen’s Association) in late 1800s, where Marx was a leading figure. But soon the differences in strategy and aims grew deeper, where Marxist suggested a vanguard party should be at the front of revolution of emancipating the workers (it’s worth remembering that it was Marx who said “only workers can emancipate themselves”, but well…), the anarchists suggested the state and capitalism can only be abolished at the same time as state is very capitalistic in nature and the power of the state is corrupting. As Bakunin said, “Take the most radical of revolutionaries and place him on the throne of all the Russia or give him dictatorial powers . . . and before the year is out he will be worse than the Czar himself.” And either the State must be destroyed or one must “reconcile oneself to the vilest and most dangerous lie of our century….Red Bureaucracy.”
Some anarchists withdrew from the International while some were kicked out. Bakunin’s prophecy of red bureaucracy came true. Spanish revolution (a popular and widespread anarchist revolution) was crushed by combined forces of Fascists, Communists and Liberal democracies. In Russia Anarchists were killed as the Bolsheviks took power. It is quite clear that Marxists and Anarchists are not the same, neither believes in actions.

So the remark,” Naxalism cannot be brought to Delhi. Delhi can’t be surrendered to anarchy” is very misleading and aims to distort and provide a very violent image of Anarchism, at the same time belittling its radical yet humanist roots by associating it with Mr Kejriwal. I can almost appreciate the ingenuity of this propaganda. But in an already hellish environment for activists and social critics in this country, where student movements and activists groups are harassed and violently assaulted on regular basis (see [1][2][3][4][5]), labeling Anarchists as Naxalists and hence bringing them directly under the radar of Operation Greenhunt is devastating and, to me personally, threatening.

My appeal here is not to Mr Modi or Mr Kejriwal, but to the citizens of this country. It is something to be proud of, I guess, about this country that mass consensus still has some effect in decision making (at least when it comes to matters of Supreme Court) but this force can as easily be used by the state, which I would argue is the case, to form consensus based on misinformation and distortions and invoking nationalism and patriotism to repress the part of the population which does not agree with it. It is very crucial that the population has a clear understanding of the topics when the state (and corporations), for its own interest, want to keep them delusional about them, topics like alternative politics and economic theories like anarchism. When quite literally lives of activists depends on it.

Libertarian-Socialist Rant

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Disclaimer: This article is not for folks who shout “No! NO! I don’t wanna believe!” whenever they see words like “class interests” or “socialism” or  “environment-is-not-an-externality-you-dumbass”. Or for folks who indulge themselves in business theories or neoclassical economics to understand the ‘nature’ of socioeconomic relations.

I wanna begin with PR and educational system (..again), but this time with an intention of igniting a metaphysical rebellion (..maybe). For those who landed on earth today, well you see, we have highly authoritarian institutes which dumb down the population by crushing elements of critical thinking and emphasizing on senseless competition within peers for grades or a pat on the head and by utilizing all the knowledge of behavioural sciences, they create obedient, confused, self-loathing individuals, and I hope you enjoy your stay here. Ok. Ok. Some sort of education does happen in midst of all this because the confused individuals are then required to push levers, create programs, build dams, all on direct order from the employer. And it is all very efficient I must say and important for the people in power, like Edward Bernays said,

“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society.”

And the six basic functions of school outlined by Inglis. Other than education system of orthodox indoctrination there are also social, political and media apparatus to limit the discussion and keep public opinion in check.

“The smart way to keep people passive and obedient is to strictly limit the spectrum of acceptable opinion, but allow very lively debate within that spectrum – even encourage the more critical and dissident views. That gives people the sense that there’s free thinking going on, while all the time the presuppositions of the system are being reinforced by the limits put on the range of the debate.” – Noam Chomsky

[Maybe some day I'll write an article without quoting either Orwell or Chomsky but today is not that day]

Alfie Kohn explains how to prevent social change:
1. Limit Your Vision – Ignoring that social structure or hierarchy has anything to do with drastic economic inequality or pollution or climate change or nuclear weapons or terrorism etc and instead believing that everything should be done on individual level.
2. Adapt – To keep the status quo intact, people should be adjusted to serve its needs. Instead of the other way round. The premise is, you should adjust to the conditions as you find without thinking about the nature of those structures.
3. Think About Yourself –  You should be only concerned about your well being, groom yourself and let the rest of the world go on its way.
4. Be ‘realistic’ – “Like it or not, that’s just the way it is”. These protestation of powerlessness are very useful, every person who takes such as stance is a person rescued from social activism. And labeling people ‘Idealistic” ensures they are not taken seriously.
5. Rationalize – Proposing insignificant reforms that never come close of changing the structures themselves.

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Similar to a modern day commodity these ideologies and actions are camouflaged by theological and metaphysical niceties and its presence reflects an invisible transcendence and hence you do not see the dictatorship in democracy. Illusions can be powerful, liberation can be painful, like Wachowski Brothers Matrix or like people from the Allegory of the Cave, “…most of these people are not ready to be unplugged, Neo” said Socrates.  Exploiting Dunning-Kruger effect, Herd behavior or any other heuristics or cognitive biases they ‘ll deceive you, and I am not just talking about the marketing people here, the guy who wants to sell you more toothpastes, but also the people who want to sell you the idea of a new politician, who when I think about it happens to be the same people.

Even when you have escaped the Evil Demon of Descartes in this sense, you may feel powerless because of the Alfie Kohn argument or you might in the face of the facts go on acting as if there is no matrix, that the interests of the bosses are similar to that of the workers, or the representative democracy could work we just need better rules etc etc etc. Like people, for example, who acknowledge global warming is real and harmful and needs to be stopped somehow but act as if there is no global warming because:
1. They do not see the effects of global warming as they step out of there houses directly.
2. They actually cannot do anything practically alone. They need to organize.

Why did I say representative democracy fails? Read this by Iain McKay.

So, Yes, Organize! Organize fellow citizens, don’t look up to the well-to-do upper classes for support or cues, even though they too need to fight against the oppressive institutes that torment the whole of humanity and the planet at large. But their short term interests blind them. Organize! Don’t expect charity that entertains the poverty, instead eradicate the systems that generates it. Organize! For a better, just, classless society. Organize for yourself! Organize for the globe!

The Best Thing That Money Can Buy

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Police. They might put up a facade of peace and justice, but appearance is not the essence.

Equilibrium can be obtained in situations of imbalance by letting things be. But to maintain imbalance you need to exert external force. And this force becomes necessary in human society when one class “possesses” and other does not. Some people are systematically empowered to dictate the terms on which other people live, work and trade. The ones who do not fit into their idea of a “law abiding citizen”, are dealt with according to their whims.

There are unacceptable people like Salman:

The police said Salman, 25, and his six friends, including two women, had showed disrespect to the national anthem while it was being played inside a movie theatre in the city on August 18. A few others who saw the group remaining seated and allegedly “making catcalls” when the anthem was being played lodged a complaint with the police.

And like factory workers all around the country:

Gowda continued, “The police then forcibly tried to shove workers into the company bus using such violence that two workers fell to the ground. They pounced on the workers, beating them and stomping on them with their boots. The two had to be hospitalized along with seven others who were suffering from the effects of hunger strike.”

And like the activist protesting against actions of Indian armed forces:

The Indian human rights activist Irom Sharmila, who has been on a hunger strike for nearly 14 years to protest a law that gives impunity to armed forces serving in the state of Manipur, was arrested Friday just two days after a court ordered her release from custody

And hundreds of thousands of other “agitators”, most of them unknown.

A recklessly driven police bus went out of control at Rangmahal Square on Thursday morning and crushed a woman to death.

After this incident, demonstrators (including the victim’s son) were beaten by lathis.

Innocents, more often than not, are framed by police just to “close the file” or due to pressure from their higher authorities (mostly when the actual convict is rich enough to bribe the officers). And lets not forget the famous Indian Police Encounters. [1] [2]

Now, where is the media that argues for the interests of poor, oppressed and the minorities? Where is our police force? The truth is, we only have each other. Protests give us voice against injustice. They accuse us of being outside agitators, promising alternatives if we cooperate, but they will do anything to undermine the struggle.

Why don’t we realize that we can aim beyond these police structures. These are just working alternatives. We do need help in some situations but that help doesn’t have to be from cops. We can call our friends or people who, in the particular case, might resolve our problem. For example, Collectives and Communes like The Rape Crisis Center, community-based organizations like SOS Collectives and groups like the ones who searched for thousands of Holocaust survivors and volunteers in Syria, WhiteHelmets.

Even in day-to-day life, communities with “right to issue orders” and “right to settle disputes” and agreements based on diffused sanctions and various social sanctions are examples that prove that we are capable enough of managing our own affairs without a specialized group which has a monopoly over the use of violence!